Within an article recently published in the international journal Nature Scientific Reports under the title (The spread of man in the Acholi era in the Nafud desert in the north of the Kingdom), the results of the first Acholi site dated in the Kingdom appeared, which is the “Al-Naseem” site in the Al-Nafud desert in Hail, “the north of the Kingdom.” The results are environmental evidence of a deep lake that may have been freshwater, with evidence of ancient environmental landmarks and associated archaeological materials dating back to the Middle Pleistocene Era.
The recent results of the environmental and archaeological survey projects of the Green Arabia Project, which began 10 years ago, confirmed that the Arabian Peninsula underwent climatic changes during the Pleistocene era, making its climates more humid, and the effect of this on the spread of mankind in it and on other continents, and this applies to human groups in the Acholi period. Those who were more closely related to water sources than in the Middle Stone Age.
The Naseem site is currently the oldest documented Acholi sites so far in the Kingdom, and the curtain reveals at the regional level the types of stone tools used by man in the Middle Pleistocene Age, and it is likely that it indicates the repeated return of man to the Arabian Peninsula when it was meadows and rivers, as the site contains In a deep basin, sediments emerge in the middle of which archaeological materials from the Lower Stone Age were found. Approximately 354 stone axes and various stone chips were collected.
And it was evident through the survey that there is a strong correlation between the archaeological materials and the dry lake. The article pointed out the similarity of the stone tools discovered with those previously found in the Acholi sites in the Nafud desert.
The extensive surveys of the project within the Nafud desert indicate that the local quartzite material was often used to make other stone tools during the Acholi period that has not yet been dated. In the Nafud desert.
These Acholi stone tools at the Naseem site showed that they date back to the late Middle Pleistocene period, within (350,000 to 250,000 years), which is likely to coincide with the ninth marine isotope stage when the ice melted in it and formed lakes in the Nafud desert. The similarity between the Acholi material at the Naseem site and the other undated Acholi sites in the Nafud desert, indicates that the settled deep fresh water in the Nafud desert, such as the Naseem site, contributed to the ease of human spread and movement in comparison to what he found of fresh water and abundance of fishing around it.
The diversity of mammals, large and small, indicates the presence of lakes that were formed during the melting periods of the ice in the Nefud region, which indicates the spread of animals in the region during the wet stages and their abundance around the water as a source of human livelihood. The Heritage Authority, with the participation of a group of Saudi experts, is completing the scientific project (Green Arabia) in cooperation with their international counterparts from the Max Planck Institute for the Sciences of Human History, which focuses on tracking and studying the climatic changes that the Arabian peninsula has undergone throughout the ages, and between the beginning of human settlement. In the country and the migration of people to it through the continents of the ancient world, the results of previous studies of the project revealed evidence of the existence of thousands of lakes, rivers, forests, and creatures throughout the island, around which many successive civilizations have arisen. Because of the temperate climate of the Arabian Peninsula at that time.
During the last quarter of the year 2020, the authority announced a very important archaeological discovery that includes the discovery of human footprints, elephants, camels and predators around an ancient, dry lake on the outskirts of the Tabuk region dating back more than 120,000 years. This archaeological discovery represents the first scientific evidence of the oldest The presence of human and animal footprints on the land of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Heritage Authority, through the “Green Arabia Project”, seeks to carry out intensive surveys and organized excavations to understand the ancient climatic conditions and the nature of the environment prevailing in the Arabian Peninsula and the subsequent human migrations, as part of the authority’s efforts in excavating, preserving and introducing national antiquities sites within the national strategy. For the culture emanating from the Kingdom’s Vision 2030.